【国关青年说】魏建勋:中国与北约-如何相互合作?

澳门尼斯人 2

进入专题: 中美关系
 

原标题:【国关青年说】魏建勋:中国与北约-如何相互合作?

王缉思 (进入专栏)
 

學人簡介

澳门尼斯人 1

作者系外交学院外交学专业(第二学士学位)学生

  

Key words: China NATO common interest

   原编者按:本文是《中国国际战略评论2016》英文版China
International Strategy Review 2016
的封面文章,在此发出,以飨读者。

ABSTRACT

  

The relation between China and NATO is
extensively influenced by international configuration. So there exists a
dynamic development process between China and NATO. In the new era,
China and NATO have to establish good relations with each other in spite
of divergencies. This paper would be divided into five parts: the
development process between China and NATO, NATO’s attitude towards
China, China’s attitude towards NATO, the reasons for cooperation and
consultation between China and NATO, possible ways for China and NATO to
cooperate with each other.

China-Us Relations Have entered a “new
normal”

The development process between China
and NATO

Wang Jisi

The Vandenberg Resolution by the US
Senate in June 1946 opened the door for the establishment of
NATO.Established in February 1952, NATO aimed to “safeguard the freedom
and security of all its members by political and military means in
accordance with the Washington Treaty and the principles of the United
Nations Charter”.

  

After the end of WWII, the Cold War began
with the Truman Doctrine. In the early period of the Cold War, China saw
NATO as a hostile force against the socialist camp and a tool for US
hegemonism.

澳门尼斯人,   The International Order and China-US
Relations Are Still Stable

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the
divergencies between China and the Soviet Union intensified. The Soviet
Union had gradually become China’s biggest threat. China and the United
States with other NATO members began to improve relations. Under the
guidance of “the three worlds ” theory, China saw European countries as
part of the second world. In the mid-1980s, China and NATO began to
contact with each other.

  

NATO bombed the Chinese Embassy in
Belgrade in the name of humanitarian intervention, which brought great
harm to China and revealed NATO’s policy tendency that is to implement
power politics and hegemonism under the control of the United States
after the end of the Cold War. China closed its door to contact with
NATO.

   When judging trends in China-US relations, first we should observe
the overall world situation and the overall situations within each
country. In recent years, world economic growth has slowed down, but
China and the United States remain the two largest engines driving the
world economy. Globalization is still moving forward, while its momentum
has suffered a setback. Nationalism, protectionism, and populism are
generally on the rise in all countries; the gap between the rich and the
poor is growing; sectarian and ethnic conflicts are prominent; refugee
issues remain serious; and violent terrorist activities have been
frequent. Incidents of disorder, which impact global security and
stability, are on the rise. All this urgently requires more efforts to
strengthen great power coordination and cooperation, consolidate the
present international order, promote economic prosperity, address social
justice on a global scale, and prevent geopolitical confrontation.

Since the reform and opening up, 40 years
has witnessed China’s great economic development. China has gained more
and more discourse in the international stage. The common interests
between China and members of NATO are integrating and colliding, which
result in the increasing frequency of contact between two side. The two
side have realized that establishment of good relations is beneficial to
the relative countries and the rest of the world.

  

澳门尼斯人 2

   Since the 18th Party Congress, China has adhered to the judgment
that peace and development is the mainstream of the times. China’s
leadership has persisted in reform and opening up, reaffirmed the path
of peaceful development, and continued to pursue a policy of friendship
with neighboring countries. China is a beneficiary, defender,
contributor, and builder of the current international order, and it does
not want to “set up its own system” internationally. Chinese leaders
attach great importance to the stability and development of relations
with the United States, and they are working hard to deepen contacts
with US officials, business circles, and society.

NATO’s attitude towards China

  

The US and European countries are still
haunted by the influence of financial crisis and debt crisis
respectively. The reality of fiscal austerity forces NATO to adopt
flexible policies. Since 2010, China has become the 2nd largest economy
in the world, so NATO could reduce its operation costs through
cooperation with China.

   Since the Obama administration took office, there have been clear
adjustments to domestic and foreign policies. Its foreign policy has
stuck to the principle of “economy first” and stressed multilateral
diplomacy and “smart power”; it has been prudent in the use of force
overseas, reduced national defense expenditures, and upheld a policy of
“don’t do the stupid stuff”; it has improved relations with Cuba and
Iran, two countries with which it has deep- seated feuds. However,
US-Russia relations have stagnated and the counter-terrorism situation
is not bright. President Barack Obama has reiterated that the United
States welcomes the rise of a peaceful, stable, and successful China,
that China’s political stability and economic success are in the
interest of the United States, and that the United States hopes to
strengthen cooperation with China.

In the cooperative security part of
NATO’s 2010 new strategic concept, we could see “The Alliance will
engage actively to enhance international security, through partnership
with relevant countries and other international organizations; by
contributing actively to arms control, non-proliferation and
disarmament. From this, the door of cooperative security is opened to
any country and organization which is willing to cooperate with NATO in
the security field. China could cooperate with NATO in the security
field.

  

After 13 years of war, NATO formally
ended its combat operations in Afghanistan on Sunday, leaving the Afghan
army and police in charge of security in a country plagued by continued
fighting, a ferocious insurgency and a rising tide of both military and
civilian casualties. China, as a neighboring country of Afghanistan and
Pakistan, has established an all-weather strategic partnership with
Pakistan. After the US-led NATO withdrawal, the NATO side hopes that
China could play a greater role to ensure stability in the region.

   During the past few years, China and the United States have
maintained dialogues in the area of international security. Despite
issues such as the US interference in the South China Sea disputes and
its plan to deploy the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) in
South Korea, China and the United States have nevertheless avoided
direct conflict and serious crisis. The Chinese and US militaries have
gradually built multifaceted and multilayered dialogue and exchange
mechanisms. China-US bilateral trade is on its way to surpass China’s
trade with the EU. Economic and trade cooperation mechanisms between
some of China’s provinces and cities with relevant US states has become
a new format, and investment by Chinese businesses in the United States
is growing rapidly. China’s “13th Five-Year Plan” includes the concepts
of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and inclusive development,
which provide more opportunities for China-US cooperation. Cultural and
educational exchanges have continued to expand between the two
countries, and bilateral tourism is increasingly convenient and growing
rapidly.

Here are also some NATO’s concerns about
cooperation with China.

  

The first one: NATO is on the track of
expanding eastwardly. In 2013, China’s president Xi put forward the idea
of “the silk road”. The road starts from China, progressing westwardly.
In the geostrategic area, Mackinder came up with the heartland theory.
Accordingly, it was the Heartland (where the continental masses of
Eurasia were concentrated) that served as the pivot of all the
geopolitical transformations of historical dimensions within the World
Island.

   Cooperation by both countries on global governance issues, such as
climate change, has become a highlight. Economic cooperation and
cultural exchanges help to stablize and boost China-US relations. During
President Xi Jinping’s visits to the United States in September 2015 and
in March 2016, he emphasized many times that “the common interests
shared by China and the United States are far greater than their
differences.” This is an important judgment of the facts, and it is
absolutely not diplomatic rhetoric.

In the process of NATO’s eastern
expansion and the road’s westward
progress, there may be fierce competitions in the heartland area.

  

The second one: Counter-terrorism
cooperation is often limited to dialogue and coordination between NATO
and China. In the US’ National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year
2000, The Secretary of Defense may not authorize any
military-to-military exchange or contact described in sub- section (b)
to be conducted by the armed forces with representatives of the People’s
Liberation Army of the People’s Republic of China if that exchange or
contact would create a national security risk due to an inappropriate
exposure specified in subsection (b).

   Three Major Contradictions Highlight
the “New Normal”

NATO fears that if it strengthens
military exchanges and cooperation with China, it will inevitably lead
to the flow of intelligence and military technology into China. Because
strengthening cooperation in counter-terrorism means the sharing of
intelligence, common supervision and reconnaissance, and the necessary
transfer of military technology.

  

Given China’s friendly relations with
North Korea, Iran, Burma, Hamas and other so-called “rogue regimes”,
NATO fears that China may leak military technology which will increase
the strength of these countries and further threaten US traditional
regional allies’ interests. (Japan, Korea, Philippines, Israel,
etc.)

China-US relations are gradually moving towards
maturity,(点击此处阅读下一页)

The last one: NATO fears that China may
separate European countries and the US.